சனி, டிசம்பர் 27, 2008

Chnadrayaan has propelled India to select nations in space tech

Indian moon mission Chnadrayaan has propelled India to the select league of the nations with expertise in space technology. India is only the second nation besides China from the third world to have successfully launched a moon mission.

The space club so far consisted of only United States, Russia, Japan and France. But India has made strides like no other country when it comes to space technology, and amazingly with a very small budget. 

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) had a meager budget of Rs 380 crore for Chandrayaan-1. For similar moon missions, the budget of US and other countries was several times higher than that of ISRO.

Chandrayaan’s success has been a big scientific feat for a developing nation like India that has not received much scientific assistance from the west.


ISRO has already made it clear that the Indian lunar mission is not an exercise in reinventing the wheel. Chandrayaan-1 is striving to unravel the hitherto unknown features of the moon for the first time.

ISRO points out that a lunar mission can provide impetus to science in India, a challenge to technology and possibly a new dimension to international cooperation. Also on the agenda are the preparation of the three dimensional atlas of the regions on the moon and the chemical mapping of the entire lunar surface.

This is a dream for any nation. And India fulfilled its long cherished dream on 22nd October earlier this year. 

For India, which began its space journey in a modest way in 1963 with the launch of a 9-kilo rocket from a research facility at the fishing hamlet of Thumba in Kerala, the Chandrayaan-1 marks a quantum leap. 

The Project was announced on the occasion of 56th independence day of India by then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. India’s Chandrayaan-1 mission is aimed at high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near infrared(NIR), low energy X-rays and high-energy X-ray regions. Specifically the objectives is to prepare a three-dimensional atlas (with a high spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10m) of both near and far side of the moon.

Its objective is also to conduct chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface for distribution of elements such as Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium with a spatial resolution of about 25 km and high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium & Thorium with a spatial resolution of about 20 km.

It is hoped that simultaneous photo geological and chemical mapping will enable identification of different geological units, which will test the early evolutionary history of the moon and help in determining the nature and stratigraphy of the lunar crust.

India has seen numerous successes in the recent past with its space programs. On 28th April this year, India created history by launching ten satellites in one go, carrying a payload of 824 kg. India’s first fully commercial launch came on 23rd April when the Italian astronomical satellite, AGILE, was sent into space. On January 10th 2007, India launched the PSLV C-7 vehicle, injecting four satellites into orbit.

A partial chronology of ISRO

1963 - The first sounding rocket was launched Nov. 21 from TERLS.

1965 -Space Science & Technology Center (SSTC) was established in Thumba, Trivandrum.

1967 - Satellite Telecommunication Earth Station was erected at Ahmedabad.

1969 - Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was created on August 15 in the Department of Atomic Energy. Since then, ISRO has managed India's space research and the uses of space for peaceful purposes.

1972 - The government established the Space Commission and the Department of Space (DOS) in June. DOS conducts the nation's space activities for ISRO at four space Centers across the country. DOS reports directly to the Prime Minister.

1972 - ISRO placed under DOS on June 1.

1975 - ISRO made a Government Org. on April 1.

1975 - Aryabhata, the first Indian space satellite, was launched for India on April 19.

1979 - Bhaskara-I, an experimental satellite for earth observations, launched on June 7.

1979 - The first experimental launch of an SLV-3 rocket on August 10 did not place its Rohini Technology Payload satellite in orbit.

1980 - India successfully launched its own Rohini-1 satellite on July 18 on a Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) rocket from the Sriharikota Island launch site.

1983 - The Rohini-3 communications satellite, launched in August, had by the end of 1985 extended nationwide television coverage from 20 percent to 70 percent of the population. Today it is about 90 percent.

1984 - The first Indian cosmonaut, Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma became the 138th man in space when he spent eight days aboard the USSR's space station Salyut 7.

1992 - The Indian-built INSAT-2 geostationary communications and meteorological satellite superseded an American-built INSAT-1.

1993 - The even larger Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) debuted in September, but failed to attain orbit. Its individual elements were successful. PSLV can lift a one-ton satellite to a Sun-synchronous polar orbit.

2001 -- The first launch of a still larger Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) rocket was successful on April 18.

2002- On 2nd September 1st MET Satellite was launched from Satish Dhawan Space Center at Srihorikota. It keeps continuous watch on weather through its high resolution Radiometer.

2003-The multipurpose, INSAT-3A was launched from   France on 10th April. A communication satellite weighing 1800 Kg was launched aboard the GSLV-D2 from Sriharikota on 8th May.

Kalam tells students not to fear about future

Kohima, December 27 2008: FORMER PRESIDENT of India, APJ Abdul Kalam today asserted that no youth should fear about their future as the ignited mind of the youth is the most powerful resource.

He said that 'if we have aim in life and work hard with confidence' and has the confidence to defeat the problem then success is surely at hand".

Speaking as the chief guest at the 16th National Children's Science Congress at Dimapur today, Dr.

Kalam exhorted the children to have vision in life and work hard and also shared the story of three eminent scientists from India who struggled hard and achieved their goals thereby putting India on the scientific world map.

Touching on the theme of the programme 'Planet Earth � Our home : Explore, Share & Care', Dr Kalam urged the children to plant more trees so as to have a sound environment in their future days.

He also hoped that the National Childrens' Science Congress will be a forum to ignite the minds of the young children as far as scientific temperament is concerned.

Dr Kalam, later on, interacted with the child scientists and other participants.

Responding to a question posed by a student as how the country should respond if it is attacked by nuclear weapons, India's missile man asked the students not to worry about the country's capability to face with such an eventuality and suggested the students to concentrate on studies.

Replying to another question on terrorism, Dr.

Kalam said "In my opinion the terrorism is now a global problem, so a UN mechanism should be set up to deal with this challenge, but at the same time the country should also adopt proper strategy to face this problem".

He also expressed hope that the Science Congress would be a launching pad for the students to grapple with the environmental problems facing by the planet earth.

He pointed out that the young people coming from different parts of the country can learn a lot from Nagaland where the environment and nature has been protected by the Naga warriors with their wisdom.

Secretary, DST, Govt.

of India, Dr.T.Ramasami said that science and technology holds the key for global economy and we have a large number of talented people in the country.

He said that to ignite the young minds, the Govt.

of India has introduced a number of schemes and scholarships so that those children who are interested in the field of science can avail the opportunities.

President, NCSTC-Network, Prof Yash Pal expressed happiness over the huge turnout of children for the programme and hoped that more children will participate in the future.

He said that children should be encouraged to engage themselves on the projects on environment and also learn to communicate and cultivate true spirit of scientific temper through discipline.

He said that children should not imprison themselves with different subjects in Schools but connect with the land, the people and other humanitarian subjects.

He further exhorted the children to go forward to the future and not to go back to the past.

Welcome address was given by Honorary Director, NIHESW, Dr Inakhe Sumi.

Vote of thanks was delivered by State Co-ordinator NCSC Nagaland & Co-convenor cum Co-org Secy, 16th NCSC, Andrew Ahoto Sema.

Taxi breaches Kalam’s convoy

KOLKATA: Even as the city police remained on a high security alert, a scare was created on Saturday when a taxi got into the convoy of the former President, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, who was on his way to the airport. The taxi driver was taken into police custody and will be produced in court.

Amid attempts by a section of the police to feign ignorance about the incident, IG (Headquarters) B. Basu told The Hindu “a taxi had got into the convoy of the ex-President.” The former President was here to inaugurate a Science Fair organised to mark the 150th birth anniversary of pioneer scientist Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose.

Officials at the Lake Police Station where the taxi driver is being interrogated said 20-year-old Dular Yadav said he had strayed into the convoy while trying to overtake a vehicle, which he did not recognise as a police vehicle. The vehicle was carrying plainclothes policemen.

The incident happened when the convoy was close to the Netaji Subhas International Airport. The taxi, which was trying to speed off, was intercepted by the convoy’s pilot vehicle at a spot five km away from the airport. “We have taken him into police custody and are verifying his statements. He will be produced in the court,” a police official said.

Chandrayaan: How Ground Segment Receives Signals From Lunar Craft


Hyderabad, Dec 28, 2008: If sending Chandrayaan-1 into the lunar orbit is a Herculean task, deciphering the radio signals that are sent back to the earth from the spacecraft is equally challenging.

The radio signals, beamed back by Chandrayaan-1 to the master control room in Bengaluru 4,00,000 km away from it, become quite weak. ISRO scientists will have to adopt special methods to enhance the signals to decipher the message from the first-ever lunar orbitor sent by India.

"During the various phases of its flight, Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft will send detailed information about its health to Earth through its transmitter. At the same time, the spacecraft will be ready to receive radio commands sent from Chandrayaan-1 Spacecraft Control Centre instructing it to perform various tasks. Besides, the spacecraft receives, modifies and retransmits the radio waves sent by ground antennas in a precise way. This plays a crucial role in knowing its position and orbit at a particular instant of time. All these happen at 'S-band' frequencies in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.," according to an ISRO
communiqué.

As Chandrayaan-1 orbits the Moon, the spacecraft sends valuable imagery and other scientific information to Earth through X-band (at a higher frequency compared to S-band), which also lies in the microwave region But, such information is transmitted through radio at a very low power of a few watts. Thus, radio signals carrying that

precious information become extremely feeble by the time they travel 4,00,000 km from the Moon and reach ISRO's ground station in Bengaluru back on the earth.

The Ground Segment of Chandrayaan-1 performs the crucial task of receiving the radio signals sent by spacecraft.



It also transmits the radio commands to be sent to the spacecraft during different phases of its mission. Besides, it processes and safe keeps the scientific information sent by Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft.

ISRO scientists are armed by a number of equipment to decode the message relayed back by Chandrayaan-1, howsoever weak they are. The ground segment of ISRO includes the Indian Deep Space Network, Spacecraft Control Centre and Indian Space Science Data Centre.

"Deep Space Network performs the important task of receiving the radio signals transmitted by Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft that become incredibly feeble by the time they reach the earth. Besides, it can send commands to the spacecraft at a power level of up to 20 kilowatts," the Chandrayaan pre-launch communiqué said.

IDSN consists of two large parabolic antennas, one with 18 m and the other 32 m diameter at Byalalu, in the outskirts of Bengaluru. Of these, the 32 m antenna with its 'seven mirror beam wave guide system' is indigenously developed. The 18 m antenna can support Chandrayaan-1 mission, but the 32 m antenna can support

Chandrayaan-1 and any spacecraft mission further deep into space.

During the initial phase of the mission, besides these two antennas, other ground stations in Lucknow, Sriharikota, Thiruvananthapuram, Port Blair, Mauritius, Brunei, Biak (Indonesia) and Bearslake (Russia) as well as external network stations at Goldstone, Applied Physics Laboratory in Maryland, Hawaii (all three in USA), Brazil and Russia support the mission.


The Spacecraft Control Centre, located near ISTRAC campus at Peenya, North of Bengaluru, is the focal point of all the operational activities of Chandrayaan-1 during all the phases of the mission. Commands to be transmitted to Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft to maintain its health as well as to make it perform various tasks originate from here.

Experts specialising in various spacecraft subsystems as well as spacecraft mission operations personnel are stationed at SCC.

Kalam keen to help set up science park at Kharghar

MUMBAI: Former President APJ Abdul Kalam, who will soon share his expertise for the development of a science park at Kharghar in Navi Mumbai, has insisted that the project, once completed, should be an "igniting and everlasting'' experience that would impress the minds of the country's new generation. 

Cidco managing director G S Gill, along with senior planner Ramesh Dengle, called on Kalam at his New Delhi residence to apprise him of the project's outline. 

"It is an honour for the Cidco and the entire region to have a science park there. Kalam has responded positively to our request to act as the project's patron,'' said Cidco spokesperson Mohan Ninave. 

The project, which is being developed over 20 acres of land along a plateau in Kharghar, will include a golf course, a film and fun city and nature parks. Since the park is mainly meant for the youngsters, Cidco decided to include them in the planning. Through an essay competition, the agency invited suggestions from schoolstudents in Navi Mumbai on how the park should be developed. "We informed Kalam about the children's opinion and he advised us accordingly,'' Ninave said. The project will cost around Rs 80 crore. 

Besides asking the Cidco team to study the science parks in Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore, Kalam has also given a rough idea of what needs to be done to attract the younger generation.

Kalam asks students to take up tree plantation

Dimapur , Dec 27 Insisting on linking science to human activities, former President, A P J Abdul Kalam today called upon the students to take up tree plantation on a mission mode to create billion trees in the country.

Addressing students at the 16th National Childrens' Science Congress, here Kalam administered an oath for the students to plant at least five trees in a year.

Responding to a question posed by a student as how the country should respond if it is attacked by nuclear weapons, India&aposs missile man asked the students not to worry about the country&aposs&aposcapability to face with such an eventuality and suggested the students to concentrate on studies.

Replying to another question on terrorism, Kalam said,"In my opinion terrorism is now a global problem, so a UN mechanism should be set up to deal with this challenge, but at the same time the country should also adopt proper strategy to face this problem".

India’s future great minds in Nagaland

Dr. AJP Abdul Kalam, former President of India makes a point addressing science student on the opening day of the 16th National Children’s Science Congress at Living Stone Higher Secondary School in Dimapur on Saturday, December 27. The National Children’s Science Congress, a programme of the NCSTC Network is a nationwide activity since 1993, for five days of December every year and organized by NCSTC Network. The network is made up of 76 government and non-government organizations. The 16th National Children’s Science Congress witnessed the participation of around six hundred child scientists and delegates from India. This year, the focal theme of the event is ‘Planet Earth-Our Home: Explore, Share and Care’. (Photo/Deepak Sharma)
 
Dimapur| December 27 : Committed to its theme “Planet Earth, Our Home, Explore, Share and Care,” the 16th National Children Science Congress (NCSC) took off today with tree plantation at Livingstone Higher Secondary School in Dimapur. Thirty four participating states including eight officials from the Government of Nagaland planted saplings to keep alive this year’s theme. 
The evening session was graced by eminent scientist and former President of India Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam who was received here with great enthusiasm and affection by a hysteric crowd of child scientists from across India. Against the spectrum of colorful welcome given to the former President, Kalam said Nagaland is the right platform to discuss the future of innovation of a beautiful environment. He appreciated the vibrant beauty of the state and said the 16th ICSC theme could not have been more appropriate than in a place like Nagaland. “Innovation is enabled by beautiful environment and there couldn’t be a better place to discuss a bright future than the pristine Nagaland,” Dr. Kalam said.  
He expressed hope that the science congress would be a launching pad for the students to grapple with the environmental problems being faced by planet Earth. He pointed out that young people coming from different parts of the country can learn a lot from Nagaland where the environment and nature has been protected by the Naga warriors with their wisdom.
Profound words of encouragement from Dr. Kalam urged child scientists to work hard to defeat problems and with a righteous heart, to succeed in their mission. “It does not matter who I am as long as I am armed with a goal,” he pledged together with the children and encouraged them to work hard and garner more knowledge.  
Dr. Kalam in his very eloquent speech enlightened the child scientists, with success stories of award winning noble laureates, who through their perseverance and hard work have revolutionized the world with their works. Envisaging “Vision 2020” for India, Dr. Kalam also said India must look ahead for a bright future. He said economic progress will bring down societal differences and peace will eventually usher in. “Economic progress and peace go hand in hand,” he said while answering a question posed by a child scientist at the programme. Taking more queries from children, Dr. Kalam pointed out that India’s 4 million unemployed people will in the course of time be employed as India’s potential grows. He also vigorously encouraged a young aspiring politician to entertain “development politics and not political politics.” 

‘Terrorism is of evil minds’

On the volatile political situation in India and across the world, the former President also said terrorism is the collective work of evil minds and the good minds must overcome it. Replying to a host of questions from child scientists at the inaugural function Dr. Kalam said perpetrators of terrorism must be punished. He dismissed the apprehension of children over nuclear attacks and such. He said India is well-equipped to take care of its people and that her strength is better than any other nation. “You concentrate on your studies…we are here to take care of the rest,” he said heartily.
Dr. Kalam and a host of dignitaries were later entertained by cultural presentations organized by North East Zone Cultural Centre (NEZCC). Dr. Kalam will also be interacting with child scientist at Delhi Public School on December 28. 
Also addressing the event, Secretary, DST, Government of India, Dr.T Ramasami said science and technology holds the key for global economy and to ignite the young minds, the Government of India has introduced a number of schemes and scholarships. This way, he said, children who are interested in the field of science can avail of the opportunities.
President of NCSTC-Network, Prof Yash Pal expressed happiness at the huge turnout of children for the programme and hoped that more children will participate in the future. He said children should be encouraged to engage themselves in projects of environment and also learn to communicate and cultivate  true scientific temper through discipline. Prof. Pal also said children should not imprison themselves with different subjects in schools but connect with the land, the people and humanitarian subjects. He further exhorted the children to step forward into the future and not to retract to the past.